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Introduction of internal core components of solar road studs

Solar Photovoltaic Panels are one of the core components in the solar road stud system, which are used to convert solar energy into electrical energy. Here are some features and working principles of solar panels:


1. Features:
     * High photoelectric conversion efficiency: Solar panels are made of semiconductor materials (usually silicon) that can directly convert sunlight into electricity. At present, the efficiency of solar panels on the market can reach more than 20%, and some high-efficiency panels can even reach 30%.
     * Renewable Energy: Solar panels generate electricity by absorbing sunlight, which is a renewable energy source that does not consume fossil fuels or other finite resources.
     * Long life and reliability: Solar panels usually have a long life, generally up to 25 years or more. They are rigorously tested and certified to be weather and corrosion-resistant and able to work well in a wide range of climate conditions.
     * Environmental friendliness: The manufacture and use of solar panels do not produce harmful gases such as carbon dioxide and have almost no negative impact on the environment.
2. Working principle:
     * Photoelectric effect: The interior of the solar panel is composed of multiple photovoltaic components (solar cells). When sunlight irradiates the photovoltaic cell module, the light energy is absorbed by the semiconductor material, which excites the electrons in it and generates an electric current.
     * Structural composition: A typical solar panel consists of multiple solar cells connected in series, and each cell is usually made of silicon wafers. There are wires on the battery slices, which connect each battery slice together to form the output circuit of the battery board.
     * DC power output: The solar panel transmits the DC power generated by the output line to the battery in the solar street light system for storage. Batteries can power street lights at night or in low-light conditions.
 Energy storage components: Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) and lithium batteries (Lithium-ion, Li-ion) are common rechargeable battery types, and they are widely used in many portable electronic devices. Here are some characteristics and comparisons of NiMH batteries and lithium batteries:
1. Nickel metal hydride battery (NiMH):
* Capacity: NiMH batteries have a relatively large capacity, usually slightly higher than a lithium batteries of the same size. This makes Ni-MH batteries an advantage in devices that need to be used for a long time, such as cordless phones, cameras, and portable audio equipment.
* Charging performance: Ni-MH batteries have good charging performance and can be charged and discharged repeatedly. They don't experience a "memory effect" when charging, so they can be recharged whenever needed, rather than waiting for the battery to be completely drained.
* Environmentally friendly: Compared with some other battery types with more harmful chemical components, Ni-MH batteries are relatively more environmentally friendly because they do not contain heavy metal mercury.
* Self-discharge rate: NiMH batteries have a relatively high self-discharge rate, which means they gradually lose their stored charge even when not in use.
2. Lithium battery (Li-ion):
* Energy density: Lithium batteries have high energy density, that is, batteries per unit volume or unit weight can store more electrical energy. This makes lithium batteries an advantage in applications where size and weight are critical to devices, such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops.
* Charging performance: lithium batteries have good charging performance, can be repeatedly charged and discharged, and have high charging efficiency. Lithium batteries are not affected by the "memory effect" when charging, so they can be charged at any time.
* Lifespan: Lithium batteries have a longer lifespan than NiMH batteries. They have a higher cycle life and are able to withstand more charge and discharge cycles, so they last longer in long-term use.
* Self-discharge rate: Lithium batteries have a relatively low self-discharge rate, allowing them to retain a stored charge better than NiMH batteries when not in use.
LED lamp bead is a lighting source based on light-emitting diode (Light-Emitting Diode, LED) technology. It is a solid-state electronic device that converts electrical energy directly into light energy. The followings are the characteristics and advantages of LED lamp beads:
1. High efficiency and energy saving: LED lamp beads have the characteristics of high energy efficiency and low energy consumption. Compared with traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps, LED lamp beads have higher energy conversion efficiency and can produce more light with less energy, so they can save energy and reduce electricity bills.
2. Long life: The life of LED lamp beads is usually longer, up to tens of thousands of hours, far longer than traditional light bulbs. This means that the LED lamp beads are more durable, reducing the frequency of bulb replacement and maintenance costs.
3. Instant start and dimming: LED lamp beads light up almost instantly when starting up, no warm-up time is required. In addition, LED lamp beads can adjust the brightness through dimming control, providing more flexible lighting options.
4. Cold light source: Compared with traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, the light generated by LED lamp beads hardly contains ultraviolet and infrared rays, so it generates less heat. This makes the LED lamp beads not generate too much heat when touched, which is safer and more reliable.
5. Small and flexible: LED lamp beads are small in size and can be flexibly used in various lighting devices. They can be integrated into luminaires of different shapes and sizes to meet various lighting needs.
6. Rich colors: LED lamp beads can emit different colors of light by adjusting the material and structure. They are capable of full-color lighting, providing more options for lighting design and decoration.
7. Environmental protection: LED lamp beads do not contain harmful substances such as mercury, nor do they have ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Compared with traditional fluorescent lamps, they are more environmentally friendly and reduce environmental pollution.
 Photoresistor (Photoresistor), also known as a photoresistor or photoresistor device, is an electronic component that changes resistance value according to changes in light intensity. It is a semiconductor device whose resistance value changes with the intensity of light. Solar road studs use it to realize the function of lighting at night and automatically charging by sunlight during the day. Here are some features and working principles of photoresistors:
1. Features:
     * Photosensitive characteristics: photoresistors are highly sensitive to light, and can produce changes in resistance value under different light intensities.
     * Variable resistor: The resistance value of the photoresistor changes with the change in light intensity. Generally, when the light intensity increases, the resistance value decreases; and when the light intensity decreases, the resistance value increases.
     * Wide working range: photoresistors can work in different light intensity ranges, and can produce corresponding resistance changes from dim light to strong light.
2. Working principle:
     * Photoresistors are usually made of semiconductor materials, such as cadmium sulfide (Cadmium Sulfide, CdS) or indium sulfide (Indium Sulfide, InS).
     * The resistance value of the photoresistor depends on the effect of light intensity on the material. Under the light, the light energy excites the carriers in the material, which increases its mobility, resulting in a decrease in the resistance value. In the case of weak light or no light, the mobility of the carriers is weakened, resulting in an increase in the resistance value.
     * Photoresistors are usually connected in series or in parallel with other components in the circuit (such as power supplies, resistors, and capacitors) to measure or control light intensity.
To sum up, solar road stud lighting uses solar panels to convert solar energy into electrical energy, manages the charging process of the battery through the charge controller, and then realizes the lighting effect through the LED lamp beads. The sensor triggers the switch of the circuit system when the ambient light changes, thereby controlling the on and off of the LED lamp bead.